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X-ray videos were undistorted, calibrated and digitized using XMALab 1.5.4 , which also computed rigid body motions for the bones where possible (i.e., when a bone had three beads implanted in it). In addition, the tip of the ungual of digit III from both limbs was digitized to grossly capture movement at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. The limited experimental data collected, in terms of both number of trials and number of beads, did not permit an assessment of tracking accuracy or precision  for the current dataset. However, in a separate cadaveric study of tinamous (using different individuals and bead placements) a much larger dataset of bone motions was obtained using the same XROMM system as above. Across the 49 trials in this dataset there were 358 pairwise co-osseous intermarker distances recorded over a total of 149,795 frames; the known distances between these markers (measured in the cadaveric CT scans) was used to determine the accuracy of the experimental setup and digitization procedure. In terms of accuracy, there was a mean relative error of 0.1259% (mean absolute error of 0.08146 mm), and in terms of precision, there was a mean standard deviation of 0.06839 mm. Although it remains uncertain how strictly these results translate to the kinematic data of the present study, they at least give a qualitative indication of acceptable levels of accuracy and precision.
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As the running trial occurred on a treadmill, no ground reaction data were collected; see below for how this was estimated and used in the simulations. The walking trial fortuitously involved each foot landing cleanly and wholly on adjacent forceplates, such that complete force and moment profiles were recorded. The raw signal from the forceplates was calibrated, baselined and filtered using a custom script in MATLAB (v9.5; MathWorks, Natick, USA), which computed forces, moments and the instantaneous centre of pressure; filtering used a fourth-order, zero-lag, low-pass Butterworth filter, with a cutoff frequency of 15 Hz. A lower cutoff frequency was used here compared to the kinematic data due to differences in the quality of the two data sets; for example, the forceplate data tended to contain more noise, and so a more aggressive filtering was chosen to conservatively keep only the major aspects of data variation. The cutoff frequencies used in the present study are similar to those used in previous studies of avian terrestrial locomotion . However, in future studies that use greater sample sizes than used here, and use higher-quality experimental data, a single consistent cutoff frequency would likely be desirable . Reconstructing the complete GRF and GRM profiles through time for the whole stride involved reconstructing GRFs and GRMs for the period of double stance at the beginning and end of the trials, periods for which forces and moments of only one foot were recorded. This was achieved by duplicating the GRF and GRM profile for the foot involved and shifting it forward or backward in time as appropriate so as to correspond with instances of foot touchdown and liftoff (estimated using equation S4 of ). The centre of pressure of these unmeasured footfalls was estimated from the position of the relevant foot involved, using the reconstructed kinematic sequence derived above.
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